The Association Between Parents History of Type 2 Diabetes with Metabolic Syndrome Component and Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic Young Adult Male

A Makbul Aman, Haerani Rasyid, Syakib Bakri, Ilham J Patellongi


Background: the familial nature of type 2 diabetes is manifested by the presence of insulin resistance in non-diabetic first degree relatives. Most of these studies have been performed in middle-aged and there is only few published studies in young age individuals and adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationship between parents history of type-2 diabetes with metabolic syndrome component and insulin resistance in adolescent non-diabetic subjects. Methods: this was a cross sectional study comparing the metabolic profile, risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in non-diabetic male adolescents (17-24 years old) whose one or both parents were with type-2 diabetes. We performed anamnesis, physical examination, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, fasting insulin level and insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR. Results: metabolic abnormalities were more prevalent in subjects whose parents were with history of type-2 diabetes, especially their waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (p=0.000). There was increased risk of developing central obesity in adolescents with parental history of 19.3 fold (95%CI 2.46-151.07) and insulin resistance of 10.3 fold (95%CI 3.89-27.23). Parental history of type-2 diabetes together with metabolic syndrome component ie. waist circumference >90 cm and triglyceride ≥150 mg/dl were strong determinat factors for insulin resistance (R2=50.7%). Conclusion: the early multiple metabolic defect can be detected in non-diabetes adolescents with parental history of type-2 diabetes. Cluster of metabolic syndrome component in these subject become  a powerful determinat factor for insulin resistance.


parent history of type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance


Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimate for the year 2000 and projection for 2030. Diab Care. 2004;27:1047-53.

Chiasson LJ, Brindisi CM, Rabasa-Lhoret R. The prevention of type 2 diabetes: what is the evidence? Minerva Endocrinologica. 2005;30 (3):179-91.

Clausen DT, Mathiesen RE, Hansen T, et al. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. Diab care. 2008;31:340-6.

Harrison TA, Hindroff LA, Kim H. Family history of diabetes as a potential public health tool. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24:152-9.

Stadler M, Pacini G, Petrie J, Luger A, Anderwald C. Beta cell dysfunction in nondiabetic offspring of diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2435-44.

Bouche C, Serdy S, Khan RC, Goldfine BA. The cellular fate of glucose and its relevance in type 2 diabetes. Endoc Reviews. 2004;25(5):807-30.

Straczkowski M, Kowalska I, Stepien A. Insulin resistance in the first-degree relatives of person with type 2 diabetes. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9(5):186-90.

Lin Y, Sun Z. Current views on type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:1-11.

Annis MA, Clauder SM, Cook LM, Dequette D. Family history, diabetes, and other demographic and risk factors among participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Preventing Chronic disease. 2005;2(2):1-12.

Gulli G, Ferrannini E, Stern M, et al. The metabolic profile of NIDDM is fully established in glucose-tolerant offspring of two Mexican-American NIDDM parents. Diabetes. 1992;41:1575–86.

Ishikawa M, Pruneda ML, Adams-Huet B, Raskin P. Obesity-independent hyperinsulinemia in nondiabetic first-degree relatives of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1998;47:788–82.

Stone JN, Bilek S, Rosenbaum S. Recent National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III update: Adjusments and options. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96 (1):53E-59E.

Chan J. The metabolic syndrome. An Asian perspective. Diabetes Voice. 2006;51 (Spesial issue).

Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, et al. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985; 28:412-9.

Nguyen QM, Srinivasan SR, Xu JH, et al. Influence of childhood parental history of type 2 diabetes on the pre-diabetic and diabetic status in adulthood. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24:537-9

Arslanian AS, Bacha F, Saad R, Gungor N. Family history of type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in white youth. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:127-31.

Valdez R, Greenlund JK, Khoury JM, Yoon WP. Is family history a useful tool detecting children at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases? A public health perspective. Pediatrics. 2007;20(2):S78-S86.

American Diabetes Assosiation (ADA). Standart of medical care in diabetes-2010. Diab Care. 2010;33 (1):S11- S61.

Indonesian Diabetes Association. Guidelines on the management and prevention of prediabetes. Acta Med Indones. 2014;46(4):348-59

Rodrı´guez-Mora´n M, Guerrero-Romero F. Hyperinsulinemia in healthy children and adolescents with a positive family history for type 2 diabetes. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e1516-e22.

Setola E, Monti DL, Lucotti P, et al. Fasting hyperinsulinemia associates with increased sub-clinical inflammation in first-degree relatives normal glucose tolerant women independently of the metabolic syndrome Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009; 25:639–46.

Jeong US, Kang GD, Lee HD, et al. Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34:222-8.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.