Effect of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil on Hand Foot Syndrome and hs-CRP in Patients Receiving Capecitabine: A Randomized Trial

Yenny Dian Andayani, Mgs. Irsan Saleh, Aru Wisaksono Sudoyo, Zulkhair Ali, Legiran Legiran, Radiyati Umi Partan, Eddy Yuristo, Fadhyl Zuhry Lubis


Background: Hand Foot Syndrome (HFS) is a frequent adverse effect observed in patients undergoing capecitabine chemotherapy, often leading to treatment disruptions and dose adjustments. Elevated C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) levels have been associated with the development of HFS. This study aimed to assess the potential of unrefined Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) supplementation in mitigating HFS and hs-CRP elevation among individuals receiving capecitabine chemotherapy. Methods: Between November 2022 and May 2023, forty-five eligible participants were enrolled in this randomized trial. Patients with advanced colorectal or breast cancer were randomly allocated into three groups: an intervention group receiving unrefined EVOO supplementation (30 mL per day) alongside capecitabine, a placebo group receiving refined extra light olive oil (ELOO) supplementation (30 mL per day) alongside capecitabine, and a control group receiving capecitabine alone. The masking of both placebo and intervention groups was ensured through identical packaging and instructions, maintaining participant and physician blindness to the assigned treatments. Randomization, achieved via computer-generated sequences, ensured even distribution among the three groups. Results: HFS incidences were notably lower in the EVOO group (13.3%) compared to the placebo (66.7%) and control (80%) groups. Instances of Grade 2 or more severe HFS were observed in 20% of placebo and 40% of control group patients. No cases of severe HFS were reported in the EVOO group. Moreover, EVOO supplementation led to a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels when contrasted with the placebo and control groups. These findings suggest that EVOO may serve as a preventive measure against HFS and exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in patients undergoing capecitabine chemotherapy. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential benefits of incorporating unrefined EVOO into the regimen of patients undergoing capecitabine chemotherapy. EVOO supplementation was associated with lower incidences of HFS and a reduction in hs-CRP levels, indicating its possible role in preventing HFS development and mitigating inflammation.


Hand Foot Syndrome; C-Reactive Protein; Extra Virgin Olive Oil; Capecitabine


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