The Risk Factors of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Hospitalized Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia

Soedarsono Soedarsono, Putu Dyah Widyaningsih, Ni Made Mertaniasih


Background: multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) caused pneumonia has become a crucial case. MDRO infection has been a problem concern to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A lot of factors play roles in CAP with MDRO infection. This study aimed to analyze MDRO as the etiology of hospitalized patients with CAP along with its risk factors in Dr. Soetomo Hospital as one of the top referral hospitals in east Indonesia. Methods: this retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2016 to December 2018. Data were collected from patients’ medical records. Automatic Rapid Diagnosis (Phoenix TM) was used as a standard method for culture and susceptibility test. Various risk factors were analyzed for MDRO infection. Results: five most common pathogens in hospitalized patients with CAP were Acinetobacter baumannii 244/1364 (17.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 134/1364 (9.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 91/1364 (6.7%), Escherichia coli 58/1364 (4.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae 45/1364 (3.3%). There were 294/1364 (21.5%) MDROs isolated from patients with CAP. MDRO infection was linked to previous hospitalization, malignancy, cardiovascular disease, and structural lung disease with p values of 0.002, <0.001, 0.024, and <0.001, respectively. Conclusion: the incidence of MDRO in CAP is high (21.5%). The risk factors related were previous hospitalization, malignancy, cardiovascular disease, and structural lung disease.


Risk Factors; Multidrug-Resistant Organisms; Community-Acquired Pneumonia


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