Effect of Nigella sativa Seed Extract for Hypertension in Elderly: a Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial
Background: Nigella sativa (NS) seed extract shows diuretic activity, inhibits sympathetic nervous system overactivity and increases the production of Nitric Oxide in in vivo studies, thus it has a potential use as an adjuvant antihypertensive for elderly population. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nigella sativa seed extract to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of elderly patients with hypertension.
Methods: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted on elderly subjects with hypertension in three outpatient clinics in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta Indonesia from June to September 2011. Subjects were divided into intervention group given 300 mg Nigella sativa seed extract twice daily for 28 days and into another group which was given placebo. Blood pressure were measured on day 1 and 28. Intention to treat analysis using unpaired t-test to compare blood pressure after intervention between the two groups was performed.
Results: of a total of 85 patients, 76 subjects fulfilled the study criteria and were randomized into 2 groups, with 38 subjects in each group. Both groups were comparable in all important prognostic factors. The mean systolic blood pressure of the NS group was decreased from 160.4 (SD 15.7) mmHg to 145.8 (SD 19.8) mmHg, and from 160.9 (16.3) mmHg to 147.53 (SD 22.0) mmHg in the placebo group (p=0.36). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the NS group was decreased from 78.3 (SD 11.9) to 74.4 (SD 8.2) mmHg, and from 79.0 (SD 12.4) to 78.2 (SD 8.9) in the placebo group (p=0.35). Reported adverse events include dyspepsia in 6 subjects (15.7%), nausea in 3 subjects (7.8%), and constipation in 2 subjects (5.2%). No electrolyte abnormalities, liver and renal toxicities, or orthostatic hypotension were observed.
Conclusion: although a trend towards a slight decrease in blood pressure was observed, Nigella sativa has not been proven to be effective in reducing blood pressure in elderly patients with hypertension.
Bayley K, Grossardt B, Graves J. Novel use of Kaplan Meier methods to explain age and gender differences in hypertension control rates. Hypertension. 2008;51:841-47.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Racial/ethnic disparities in prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States, 1999-2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;54:7-9.
Departemen Kesehatan Nasional. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2007 [internet]. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan; 2008 [cited on May 10th 2011]. Downloaded from http://kgm.bappenas.go.id/index.php?hal=13&keyIdHead=10.
Gunawan D, Setiati S. Proporsi hipertensi pada usia lanjut dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keterkontrolannya [Thesis]. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia: 2010.
Soejono CH. Pengkajian paripurna pada pasien geriatri. In: Sudoyo AW, Setyohadi B, Alwi I, Kolopaking MS, Setiati S, editors. Buku ajar ilmu penyakit dalam. 4th ed. Jakarta: Pusat Penerbitan Ilmu Penyakit Dalam; 2006. p.1425.
Musini VM, Tejani AM, Bassett K, Wright JM. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;4:CD000028.
Chobanian A, Bakris G, Black H, Cushman W, Green L. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treament of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206-52.
Salem ML. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2005; 5:1749–70.
Nader MA, el Agami DS, Suddek GM. Protective effects of propolis and thymoquinone on development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;337:637-43.
ElTahir K, Ashour MM, al-harbi MM. The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen Pharmacol. 1993;24(5):1123-31.
Ubru U, Burak U, Yusuf S, Reyhan B, Arif K, Faruk TH. Cardioprotective effects of Nigella sativa oil on cyclosporine A-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;103(6):574-80.
Dehkordi F, Kamkhah A. Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension. Fundamental and Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22:447-52.
Qidwai W, Hamza H, Qureshi R, Gilani A. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (Kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: Results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Altern Compl Med. 2009;15:639-44.
Kamso S, Rumawas J, Lukito W, Purwantyastuti. Determinants of blood pressure among Indonesian elderly individuals who are of normal and overweight: a cross sectional study in an urban population. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(3):546-53.
Lloyd Jones DM, Evans JC, Levy D. Hypertension in adults across the age spectrum: current outcomes and control in the community. JAMA. 2005;294:466-72.
Ong KL, Tso AW, Lam KS, et al. Gender difference in blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk factors in Americans with diagnosed hypertension. Hypertension. 2008;51:1142-8.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Acta Medica Indonesiana