Positive Deviance: Frequent Blood Pressure Monitoring Among Non-hypertensive Middle-aged Women in Rural Indonesia

Mayumi Mizutani, Heri Sugiarto, Harumi Bando, Izumi Kondo, Jeremiah Mock

Abstract


Background: In Indonesia, as in many low and middle-income countries, hypertension is a significant health issue. Community health nurses need to identify those with early onset of hypertension by promoting frequent blood pressure (BP) checks, even among those with normal BP. Positive deviance approaches focus on identifying people who undertake uncommon preventive actions. Among middle-aged women in rural West Java, Indonesia, we aimed to identify covariates of the positive deviant practice of having one’s BP checked at least once every three months even when having normal BP.  Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey recruiting participants at health centers. Our structured questionnaire measured socio-demographic characteristics, frequency of BP checks, BMI, beliefs and practices. We used binomial logistic regression to identify covariates. Results: Among 520 participants, 265 had normal BP, and of those 156 had obtained frequent BP checks, making them positive deviants. For women with normal BP, significant covariates of obtaining frequent BP checks were: 1) having BMI ≥25.0 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)  =2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.39–4.78), 2) greater tendency to seek health information (AOR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03–1.24), 3) receiving less support from family members (AOR=0.87, 95% CI=0.77–0.97), and 4) receiving greater support from health volunteers (AOR=1.12, 95% CI=1.01–1.23). Conclusion: Positive deviants were more likely to be proactive because of the convergence of their own individual-level tendencies to learn about  their health, family-level conditions that allowed for greater autonomy, and community-level capacity of health volunteers to provide them with support. Community health nurses should focus simultaneously on activating individual-level, family-level, and community-level capacity to prevent hypertension.

Keywords


Blood pressure screening; middle-aged; women; rural; positive deviance

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