Factors Associated with Death in COVID-19 Patients in Jakarta, Indonesia: An Epidemiological Study

Anna Rozaliyani, Ary Indriana Savitri, Findra Setianingrum, Titania Nur Shelly, Vini Ratnasari, Romala Kuswindarti, Ngabila Salama, Dwi Oktavia, Widyastuti Widyastuti, Diah Handayani

Abstract


Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is an emerging respiratory disease that is now a pandemic. Indonesia is experiencing a rapid surge of cases but the local data are scarce. Methods: this is an analysis using data from the ongoing recapitulation of Epidemiological Surveillance (ES) by the Provincial Health Office of Jakarta from March 2nd to April 27th 2020. We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics of all confirmed cases in association with death. Results: of the 4,052 patients, 381 (9.4%) patients were deceased. Multivariable analysis showed that death was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.05, per year increase; p<0.001), dyspnea (OR 4.83; 95% CI 3.20, 7.29; p<0.001), pneumonia (OR 2.46; 95%CI 1.56, 3.88; p<0.001), and pre-existing hypertension (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.24, 2.78; p=0.003). Death was highest in the week of April 6th 2020 and declined in the subsequent weeks, after a large-scale social restriction commenced. Conclusion: older age, dyspnea, pneumonia, and pre-existing hypertension were associated with death. Mortality was high, but may be reduced by lockdown.


Keywords


COVID-19; death; Indonesia; Jakarta; patient characteristics

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